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Computation Cost (Previous docs)
Since Klaytn aims to maintain 1-second block time, the execution time of transactions has to be managed. Here are three approaches to achieve that:
  1. 1.
    Limiting the gas limit of a transaction 2. Limiting the execution time of a transaction 3. Limiting the computation cost of a transaction
Limiting the gas limit of a transaction was not a feasible solution because the concept of the gas represents the current exchange value of the various resources in the blockchain platform such as computation, storage, network bandwidth, and so on. It is not suitable as a metric for the transaction execution time.
Limiting the execution time of a transaction was not feasible either because the execution time can vary between nodes on the blockchain platform. For example, consider the case in which we limit the execution time of a transaction to be 100 milli-second. If a node executes a transaction in 90 ms and another node executes it in 110 ms, the two nodes cannot reach a consensus. Hence, this solution is not appropriate.
The last approach is to limit the computation cost of a transaction. We modelled the computation cost of each EVM opcode based on its actual execution time and limit the sum of computation cost of a transaction. With this approach, we eliminate other factors and only count the normalized execution time unit, and nodes can reach a consensus as well.
Therefore, we chose the third option for Klaytn. For now, the limit of the execution cost is set to 100,000,000. Since the limit is determined by the platform, developers should be aware of the computation cost of a transaction. To calculate the computation cost of a transaction, Klaytn provides klay_estimateComputationCost. The usage is almost the same as klay_estimateGas.

The below table shows the computation cost of EVM opcodes. The computation cost was determined based on experiments.
NOTE: This document contains computation costs used before the activation of the protocol upgrade. If you want the latest document, please refer to latest document.
Opcode
ComputationCost
STOP
0
ADD
150
MUL
200
SUB
219
DIV
404
SDIV
739
MOD
812
SMOD
560
ADDMOD
3349
MULMOD
4757
EXP
5000
SIGNEXTEND
481
LT
201
GT
264
SLT
176
SGT
222
EQ
220
ISZERO
165
AND
288
OR
160
XOR
657
NOT
1289
BYTE
589
SHL
1603
SHR
1346
SAR
1815
SHA3
2465
ADDRESS
284
BALANCE
1407
ORIGIN
210
CALLER
188
CALLVALUE
149
CALLDATALOAD
596
CALLDATASIZE
194
CALLDATACOPY
100
CODESIZE
145
CODECOPY
898
GASPRICE
131
EXTCODESIZE
1481
EXTCODECOPY
1000
RETURNDATASIZE
10
RETURNDATACOPY
40
EXTCODEHASH
1000
BLOCKHASH
500
COINBASE
189
TIMESTAMP
265
NUMBER
202
DIFFICULTY
180
GASLIMIT
166
POP
140
MLOAD
376
MSTORE
288
MSTORE8
5142
SLOAD
835
SSTORE
1548
JUMP
253
JUMPI
176
PC
147
MSIZE
137
GAS
230
JUMPDEST
10
PUSH1
120
PUSH2
120
PUSH3
120
PUSH4
120
PUSH5
120
PUSH6
120
PUSH7
120
PUSH8
120
PUSH9
120
PUSH10
120
PUSH11
120
PUSH12
120
PUSH13
120
PUSH14
120
PUSH15
120
PUSH16
120
PUSH17
120
PUSH18
120
PUSH19
120
PUSH20
120
PUSH21
120
PUSH22
120
PUSH23
120
PUSH24
120
PUSH25
120
PUSH26
120
PUSH27
120
PUSH28
120
PUSH29
120
PUSH30
120
PUSH31
120
PUSH32
120
DUP1
190
DUP2
190
DUP3
176
DUP4
142
DUP5
177
DUP6
165
DUP7
147
DUP8
157
DUP9
138
DUP10
174
DUP11
141
DUP12
144
DUP13
157
DUP14
143
DUP15
237
DUP16
149
SWAP1
141
SWAP2
156
SWAP3
145
SWAP4
135
SWAP5
115
SWAP6
146
SWAP7
199
SWAP8
130
SWAP9
160
SWAP10
134
SWAP11
147
SWAP12
128
SWAP13
121
SWAP14
114
SWAP15
197
SWAP16
128
LOG0
100
LOG1
1000
LOG2
1000
LOG3
1000
LOG4
1000
PUSH
0
DUP
0
SWAP
0
CREATE
2094
CALL
5000
CALLCODE
4000
RETURN
0
DELEGATECALL
696
CREATE2
10000
STATICCALL
10000
REVERT
0
SELFDESTRUCT
0
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